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Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), also known as premenstrual tension syndrome, premenstrual illness, or cyclic syndrome, is a complex set of cyclic symptoms that occur in some women during the premenstrual phase (2-10 days before menstruation). It is characterized by psychoemotional, vegetovascular, and metabolic-endocrine disorders, which can significantly impact a woman's daily life. PMS is experienced to some extent by approximately half of women after the age of 30, and about one in five women experience it before reaching 30 years of age.

Furthermore, premenstrual syndrome is commonly observed in thin women and those who are emotionally unstable, particularly those engaged in intellectual activities.

Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms
Every woman suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) experiences a different set of symptoms, which can manifest as neuro-psychic, metabolic-endocrine, or vegetative-vascular disorders. These symptoms include:

  • headache
  • irritability, depression, mood swings, aggression, palpitation
  • tender breasts, facial swelling, swelling in the legs and hands, sweating
  • pain in the abdomen, lower back, pelvic organs, and chest area
  • increased fatigue, insomnia or, conversely, sleepiness
  • slight weight gain, increased appetite
  • sensitivity to smells, changes in taste sensations
  • frequent and abundant urination, changes in bowel movements

In some cases, premenstrual syndrome can lead to neurosis. Approximately 20% of women are practically unaffected by PMS or experience it in such a mild form that it does not require medical attention. It is worth noting that PMS tends to worsen with age.

The most common forms of PMS are:
Cephalalgic (related to headaches)
There is also a so-called atypical form of PMS.

The neuro-psychic form is characterized by changes in emotional background: weakness, tearfulness, depression, and melancholy or, conversely, excessive and unfounded irritability, aggression.

In the edematous form of the syndrome, there is swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands, swelling of the face, legs, and hands, and sweating.

In medicine, the term "cephalgia" refers to a headache, so the cephalgic form of PMS is characterized by severe headache, dizziness, nausea, and sometimes vomiting. In addition to these symptoms, some women complain of chest pain and a depressed psychological state.

In the crisis form of PMS (crisis - a radical change in condition), women experience adrenaline crises. These crises begin with a feeling of tightness under the chest and are accompanied by significantly increased heart rate, numbness, and coldness of the hands. A distinctive feature of the crisis form is that half of the women experience a severe intensification of the fear of death. It should be noted that the crisis form of PMS is the most severe and requires mandatory treatment.

Untreated neuro-psychic, edematous, and cephalgic forms eventually lead to the crisis form of PMS.

Causes of PMS

Scientists have not yet found a precise and single cause of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, it is clear that a significant role in the development of the condition is played by hormonal imbalance. According to one of the theories of PMS origin, the disruption of the estrogen and progesterone hormone balance is the cause of the symptom complex.

Treatment of PMS

The treatment of PMS involves both medication-based and non-medication-based methods. Hormonal therapy with progesterone analog drugs plays a leading role in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. For patients experiencing nervous and psychological symptoms, the use of sedatives is recommended. Symptomatic treatment of PMS may include the use of analgesics, diuretics, and antiallergic drugs.

The main goal of pharmacotherapy for PMS is to alleviate symptoms that are present in nearly 80% of women.

In practice, PMS is a chronic condition with a prolonged and cyclical course. However, the use of certain remedies, such as herbal preparations, psychotropics, antioxidants, microelements, and others, can help to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life for women.

These remedies, including Agnus Castus extract, have components that suppress the production of prolactin. This normalization of prolactin levels helps alleviate many prolactin-mediated symptoms of PMS. The positive effects of substances, contained in herbal preparations containing Agnus Castus on various aspects of the pathogenesis of vegetovascular and psychopathological disorders in PMS, justify the inclusion of this component in comprehensive therapy (Femimens).

The course of PMS treatment is usually quite long, spanning several consecutive menstrual cycles. In cases of recurrence or for preventive purposes, therapy may be repeated after a certain period of time.

The inclusion of natural remedies in the treatment regimen for PMS contributes to the regulation of blood supply, trophism, metabolism, and the functional state of the central nervous system (CNS).